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[其他资源] 极简地理学

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发表于 2021-8-24 13:58:10 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
这是一本小册子,但是内涵很丰富。
淘宝网搜索“星韵地理网店”地理教辅、学具、教具专卖。
 楼主| 发表于 2021-8-24 14:32:24 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 geonet 于 2021-8-24 14:46 编辑

FOREWORD  推荐序(中文版)

前言
When the original version of I Used to Know That was published two years ago, I spent a very jolly couple of days in a small BBC studio in central London. With headphones over my ears and a microphone in front of me, I talked to people on radio stations all over the country about the book: why I had written it, what they liked about it and what brought back hideous memories.
两年前,当《我曾经知道的事》(I Used to Know That)的原版出版时,我在伦敦市中心BBC的一个小演播室度过了愉快的几天。戴着耳机,拿着麦克风,我和全国各地的广播电台的人谈论这本书:我为什么要写这本书,他们喜欢它的什么,以及什么让我想起了可怕的回忆。
To my surprise, the hideous memories were what excited people most. Top of the list and this bit wasnt a surprise was maths. One listener said that just looking at the letters a + b = c on the page had brought him out in a cold sweat, even though he no longer had any idea why. Another radio station carried out a series of interviews in the street asking people, among other things, if they knew who Pythagoras was. Oh yes, said one man, hes to do with triangles and angles and all that malarkey.
令我惊讶的是,人们最兴奋的是那些可怕的记忆。排在首位的是数学——这一点并不令人意外。一位听众说,仅仅是看着纸上的字母a + b = c就让他冒了一身冷汗,尽管他已经不知道为什么了。另一家广播电台在街上进行了一系列采访,询问人们是否知道毕达哥拉斯是谁。“哦,对了,”一个人说,“他是讲三角形、角和诸如此类的废话的。”。
I thought that was wonderful: all that malarkeysummed up perfectly the way many of my generation were taught. We had to learn it (whatever it was); we were never really told why; and, once exams were over, unless we went on to be engineers or historians or something, we never thought about it again. But it lingered somewhere at the back of our minds, which may be why I Used to Know That touched a chord.
我认为这太棒了:“所有的废话”完美地概括了我们这代人被教导的方式。我们必须学会它(不管它是什么);我们从未被告知真正的原因;而且,一旦考试结束,除非我们成为工程师或历史学家之类的人,否则我们就再也不会想它了。但它总在我们的脑海里徘徊,也许这就是为什么我曾经知道它触动了我们的心弦。
However, covering five major subjects and including a catch-all chapter called General Studies meant that a single small volume couldnt hope to deal with anything in much depth. This is where the individual titles in this series come in: ifI Used to Know That reminded us of things that we learnt once, these books will expand on them, explain why they were important and even, in the case of geography, update us on theories that have been dismissed, developed or expanded upon since we went to school. Ifyou enjoy this one, look out for I Used to Know That: English, Maths, History and General Science as well.
然而,涵盖五个主要主题,并包括一个通俗易懂的章节,称为一般研究,这意味着一个小的卷不可能处理任何深入。这就是本系列中的单个标题的来源:如果我过去知道,它提醒了我们曾经学过的东西,那么这些书将对它们进行扩展,解释它们为什么重要,甚至,就地理而言,更新我们自上学以来就被抛弃、发展或扩展的理论。如果你喜欢这本书,请留意我曾经知道的:英语、数学、历史和普通科学。
The teaching of geography has changed beyond recognition over the last few decades. I was of what Will Williams calls the capes and bays generation: we learned the names ofplaces and the heights of mountains, but it never crossed anyones mind to take us out of doors to stroll along a beach or wade through a river, to see for ourselves how these things actually worked. And certainly no one ever persuaded me that geography was fascinating because it was all around me, an unavoidable and ever-changing part of my daily life and the daily life of everyone else in the world.
在过去的几十年里,地理教学发生了前所未有的变化。我属于威尔·威廉姆斯(Will Williams)所谓的“岬角和海湾”(capes and bays)一代:我们知道了地方的名称和山脉的高度,但从来没有人想到带我们出门沿着海滩漫步或涉水过河,亲自看看这些东西是怎样运作的。当然,没有人能让我相信地理的魅力,因为它无处不在,是我日常生活中不可避免且不断变化的一部分,也是世界上其他人的日常生活。
中文版是从这里开始的,省略了前面几段)地理教育在过去几十年里发生了翻天覆地的变化。我当年还是威尔·威廉斯笔下“熟记海岬和海湾”的那一代,我们在课堂上学习不同地方的名字和各个山峰的高度,但从未有人想过要带我们走出教室,漫步沙滩或者涉水行舟,亲眼看看事物运作的方式。同样,也没有人告诉我地理学是如此精彩,它就在我身边,是我日常生活中必不可少又时时变化的一部分。地理学也在世界上每一个人的生活里
Will Williams brings the subject alive principally by showing just how wide-ranging it is. Everything from volcanic eruptions to ecotourism, climate change to models for the development of settlements is here and it is all geography! As Will says, this is a holistic discipline, encompassing science, economics and sociology, not to mention the geographical sub-disciplines of geology, geomorphology, tectonics and others too numerous to mention. Even ifyou are young enough to have been taught the theory of how landscape has changed over time, or the economic and social importance of population growth, you are sure to find new insights in this book; ifyou never got further than memorizing the lengths of the Nile, the Amazon and the Congo, it will be a revelation.
威尔·威廉姆斯主要通过展示这一主题的广泛性而使其生动起来。从火山喷发到生态旅游、气候变化到定居点开发模型,一切都在这里——这都是地理问题!正如威尔所说,这是一门综合性学科,包括科学、经济学和社会学,更不用说地质学、地貌学、构造学和其他数不胜数的地理分支学科了。即使你足够年轻,已经学会了景观如何随时间变化的理论,或者人口增长的经济和社会重要性,你一定会在这本书中找到新的见解;如果你只记得尼罗河、亚马逊河和刚果河的长度,那将是一个启示。
中文版)威尔·威廉斯展现了地理学的包罗万象,把它写活了。这本书从火山喷发说到生态旅游,从气候变化谈到人类聚落的发展模型,这些都属于地理学!正如威尔说的那样,地理学是一个全面的学科,包括科学、经济学和社会学,还有地质学、地貌学和构造学的一些分支,以及其他各种知识。哪怕你已经学过地貌如何随时间变化,或者人口增长的经济和社会意义,你也一定可以从这本书里得到新的启发。如果你仅仅死记硬背过尼罗河、亚马孙河和刚果河的长度,这本书将为你打开一个全新的世界。
In other words, whether it is a trip down memory lane or a voyage of discovery or as a helpmeet for future quizzes, I Used to Know That: Geography has something to offer anyone with an interest in the workings of this planet and the people who live on it. And if that sounds like a sweeping claim well, thats geography for you.
换句话说,无论是回忆之旅还是发现之旅,还是作为未来测验的帮助,我曾经知道:任何对这个星球及生活其上的人的运行方式感兴趣的人,地理学都能提供一些东西。。如果这听起来像是一个全面的主张——嗯,那就是你的地理。
中文版)换句话说,无论阅读这本书对你而言是一次沿着记忆小路的旅行,还是探索发现新知识的航行,或是为了未来的小测验而做的准备,只要你对地球以及生活在这个星球上的人们感兴趣,你都能获得一些你所需要的东西。如果你觉得那些听起来像是在“说大话”,那么我只说一句,这就是为你准备的地理学。。

CAROLINE TAGGART LONDON, 2010
卡罗琳塔格特伦敦,2010

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 楼主| 发表于 2021-8-24 15:14:29 | 显示全部楼层
INTRODUCTION引言

When you took off for the annual ‘Family Summer Holiday’, it would be your father who would navigate: navigate and drive. You and your sibling(s) would fight in the back of the car and your mother took sole responsibility for ‘The Map’ . This meant that when you needed a detour or (whisper it) got lost, it was Mum who would be unfairly to blame. Not that Dad ever looked at the map, he preferred the method of learning the roads and the sequence of settlements en route. Nowadays folks just plug in the destination location, set the satnav and off they go, hopefully avoiding low bridges and dead ends.
回想你小的时候,只要一家人自驾游,很有可能是爸爸开车,你和你的兄弟姐妹在后座打闹,而妈妈一个人承担起“地图”的责任。也就是说,当你们需要稍微绕下道或者干脆迷了路时,总是妈妈受到不公正的指责。爸爸从不屑于依靠地图,他更喜欢边走边认路,“兵来将挡,水来土掩”。而现在,人们只需输入目的地,再打开卫星导航,就能顺利上路,避开那些过于低矮的桥洞和死路。
This vignette encapsulates the role of geography in our lives and unfortunately demonstrates the limits of its reach into many people’s lives. Avoiding all of the talk about how the world of work has changed and how we have all become more isolated from people in our own communities: just think of the maps! Be it Lewis and Clark in the USA, Flinders across Australia or Livingstone in Africa, the great explorers didn’t set out to create maps for us to then downgrade them in the face of technology.
前文的故事形象地概括了地理学在日常生活中的角色,然而同时也暴露了地理学在大众的生活中的局限性。不去谈工作社会如何发展变化,不去想人与人之间为何愈加隔绝,就让我们看看地图吧!无论是横穿美国直抵西海岸的刘易斯(Lewis)和克拉克(Clark),还是航海征服澳大利亚全境的弗林德斯(Flinders),或者是横贯非洲的利文斯通(Livingstone),这些伟大的探险家亲手绘制出地图,可不是为了让我们后人以科技为名贬低这份宝贵的遗产的。
Maps are where most people first encounter geography and though satnav demonstrates the limits ofpeople’s engagement now, maps have made a pretty spectacular comeback. Modern geographers go nuts over ‘geographical information systems’ (GIS) and you too may, probably unwittingly, have become a geographer at least once in your working day. The Internet is awash with maps, maps with data on them, maps that show you where your friends (or at least their mobile phones) are, maps that show you when your house will flood, maps that locate your nearest restaurant, maps in fact that can show anything and everything. So geography is here to stay, a vital part of all our lives.
地图是大多数人第一次接触地理学的契机。虽然卫星导航的出现减少了人们对地图的依赖,地图仍有一席之地。现代地理学家们根本离不开地理信息系统(GIS),你可能也在工作日不经意间变身为地理学家。网络上充斥着各种地图,有储存着数据的地图、显示你的朋友们(或者他们的手机)所在位置的地图、显示你的房子何时会被水淹的地图、标明离你最近的餐馆的地图……地图实际上可以显示任何东西。地理学一直都在,它是我们所有人生活中必不可少的一部分。


To be a geographer in the opening decades of the twenty-first century is to be on the one hand excited about the endless possibilities for travel, study and fulfilment, yet on the other to be frustrated with the lack of true joined-up thinking out there. Geography has a unique and valuable role to play in bringing together the strands that surround complex issues and produce clarity of focus. Nowhere can this be seen in more sharp relief than in the debate over climate change.
21世纪初,成为一名地理学家一方面意味着数不清的旅行、研究和获取成就感的机会,但另一方面也得面临缺乏真正的整合思维的窘境。然而,地理学的独特而宝贵的作用在于,它能够把缠绕在复杂问题四周的线索整合、理顺,使重点清晰。这一特质在关于气候变化的争论中表现得最为明显。
Across the world we know that use of renewable resources must be a foundation for our descendants. We know too that, locally, weather patterns have changed over time as the climate has varied in the past. Also, we know that carbon dioxide levels have rocketed upwards since we have helped move carbon from its stores in the ground, up into the atmosphere. But we don’t actually know that the climate is changing because of man. It probably is, but it doesn’t matter. The reality is that due to dwindling supplies of fossil fuels sometime in the future, we will have to change our reliance.
我们都知道,可再生能源是我们的后代赖以生存的基础。我们都有切身体会,局部的气候模式正受全球气候变化的影响。我们也明白,自从将原本固定在土壤之中的碳释放进入大气,二氧化碳水平就急剧上升。但我们事实上并不了解人类是不是造成气候变化的元凶,或许答案是肯定的,但答案并不重要。事实是,未来随着化石燃料的告罄,我们将不得不改变我们依赖的能源。
And it’s geography that plays a part in all facets of this debate, and geographers who are perhaps uniquely placed to spot the simple coherent pathway to explanation. Be it economic concerns over the rising price of oil, environmental concerns over the impact of fossil fuel production and combustion, scarcity concerns where national supplies will be cut off or political concerns over one country’s influence on others – it doesn’t matter. In the end we need to become more sustainable, hence we need to adapt to renewable resources and we need geographers to bring together the disparate fields of enquiry to provide the ideas for moving to the next stage of development.
这一争论的各个方面都离不开地理。或许,地理学家恰好处在一个得以提供简单又清晰的解释的位置上。无论是对油价上涨的经济担忧,还是对化石燃料生产和燃烧给环境带来的影响担忧,或是为国家供给被切断而产生的资源稀缺担忧,以及因某国依靠能源对其他国家施加影响而产生政治担忧,最终我们都需要在可持续发展方面做得更好。因此,我们必须增加可再生能源的使用,也必须依赖地理学家将多元的研究领域结合,为我们下一步行动提出切实的建议。
This issue is our modern ‘Malthusian debate’ (see here), that cornerstone ofpublic consciousness that yields column inches of erudite copy and its fair share of mumbo-jumbo too. We now have the twenty-four-hour news network and the live blogosphere to keep the debate swirling around the world.
当下关于气候变化的争论就如同当代的“马尔萨斯辩论”。该公众意识的奠基石不仅衍生出了许多厚厚的学术论文,也产生了不少胡说八道的言论。不同的是,我们现在有24小时不间断的新闻网络,以及无比活跃的博客圈,在地球上每个角落每时每刻都能争论不休。。
Who would have thought that when you were learning your US state capitals, your longest rivers in the world and your flags of the UN you were laying down the foundations for a subject that would become more and more relevant as the world has grown in complexity?
谁能想到,当你若干年前在课堂上学习各个省会城市的信息,了解世界上最长的河流,或者记忆联合国组织的旗帜时,你其实是在为一门即将在这个愈加复杂的世界上变得愈加重要的学科打下基础。

淘宝网搜索“星韵地理网店”地理教辅、学具、教具专卖。
 楼主| 发表于 2021-8-24 15:18:05 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 geonet 于 2021-8-24 15:19 编辑

目录中文版推荐序(马志飞)
推荐序
引言
自然
河流 / 003
海岸 / 026
构造学 / 034
气候和天气 / 066
全球性问题 / 084
社会
世界人口 / 103
聚落 / 123
产业和能源 / 138
旅游业 / 144
发展 / 153
后记
推荐阅读
致谢

中文版推荐序
前不久,我在网上看到一首俏皮的打油诗:“看这江山美如画,本想吟诗赠天下。奈何自己没文化,只能感慨好美啊。”
虽说这只是自我调侃式的幽默,却也道出了一些真实存在的现象。古语有云,“读万卷书,行万里路”,然而,即使走过了那么多路,看过那么多山山水水,你真的了解它们背后的故事吗?
如果不读书,只行万里路,我们的旅行也仅是“上车睡觉,下车拍照,回家一问,啥都不知道”。
很多人羡慕我们从事地理工作的人,认为我们的工作就是游山玩水。倘若果真如此,那么《徐霞客游记》就真成了纯粹的文学作品。殊不知,地理学家在跋山涉水的实地考察中获取了很多重要的科学发现,这才是最重要的。
小时候,我也非常羡慕这样的生活,向往波澜壮阔的大海,憧憬高耸入云的雄峰。我的父亲是一位中学地理老师,在他的影响下,那时候我依靠死记硬背掌握了很多地理知识,能够熟练地说出某个国家的首都是什么,某个省份的省会在哪里,并以此为豪,沾沾自喜。毕竟,在中学时代地理属于文科,我们只需要背诵就可以记住大部分知识点。偶尔也有一些晦涩难懂的概念,诸如气旋、反气旋、季风、信风之类,让很多人感到头痛,甚至纠结过地理究竟是文科还是理科。直到大学我选择了地理学专业才明白,地理学竟然是一个实实在在的理科专业,它不仅包括自然地理学、地质地貌学等自然科学知识,还包括经济地理学、人口地理学等很多社会科学知识,简单的记忆背诵早已不适用,中学时代那点儿让我引以为豪的地理知识实在太小儿科了。
古时候,大家在赞美某人学问广博、无所不知时,常会说他“上知天文下知地理”,地理知识真可谓包罗万象,又与我们的生活息息相关。如果你对地理学的认识还只停留在能够看懂地图的阶段,那就已经落后于当代的中小学生了。随着信息时代的飞速发展,地球科学、空间科学、信息科学高度融合,我们正逐渐向数字地球时代三维可视化的透明地球时代迈进。然而,即使到了今天,依然有很多朋友能够熟练地使用导航软件,开车到达他们想去的地方,而下了车却找不着北。当我在电话中问他们附近有什么标志性建筑时,他们总是习惯性地回答左边有什么、右边是什么,让我啼笑皆非。
若要从事地理学专业的相关工作,需要几年时间专心研学,甚至用一生求索,而掌握一些有用又有趣的生活常识,则只需这本《极简地理学》。那些在旅行中经常遇见的奇特地貌,我们每天都会关注的气候和天气变化,以及瞬息万变的世界人口变化、城市和乡村布局、全球经济发展等社会问题,都可在这本书中找到最简洁的答案和最生动的案例。
读完这本书,你不妨带着收获的新知识,踏上新的旅途,重新认识我们美丽的地球,观赏五湖四海的美景,了解天南海北的风情。你也可以用书中简单的经济地理学理论思考当前社会发展的热点问题,比如“一带一路”倡议、北京“四个中心”的战略新定位、雄安新区千年大计的规划建设等等。这其中蕴含的地理科学规律一定会让你有新的发现和收获。
马志飞201934日于北京

威尔·威廉斯(Will Williams),牛津大学地理学硕士,畅销书作者,具有多年地理教学经验。

张梦茜,美国纽约大学新闻学院硕士,科学、健康和环境方向。目前在英文杂志社任科学记者。

马志飞1984年生,地质工程师,2009年毕业于太原理工大学矿业工程学院地球探测与信息技术专业,获硕士学位,现在北京市地质研究所从事地质勘查与地球物理勘探研究工作。北京科学技术普及创作协会会员,曾荣获中国科协首届全国科学博客大赛“杰出原创空间奖”和“zui佳博客文章奖”、第二届全国科学博客大赛“优秀博客文章奖”,著有《世界地理地质之谜大全集(破解版)》(科学出版社),发表地质科学方面的学术论文和科普文章三百多篇。




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