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已有 32 次阅读2018-11-6 12:36 |系统分类:地理学科

再说“美国梦” 
http://www.xingyun.org.cn/blog-37683-13887394.html
昨天就重读此文,今天依然在读。汤老师涉猎太广,思维远远跟不上,也许正如陈老师所说:汤老师的雄文,不是不想评论,而是不敢评论。视野开阔,论述翔实,落脚处总是段义孚的恋地情结,让我等好生佩服。这篇专论以美国这个国家的地方性为论题。


我不敢班门弄斧,还是贴一下American Space, Chinese Place,网上资料来源:大概是叶超教授在南师大讲授文化地理时的博客(文化地理的博客http://blog.sina.com.cn/u/1958469074 日志时间2011.2.23-——2014.5.13,网上叶超的简介:叶超,华东师范大学教授,博士生导师。毕业于北京大学,2008  年博士毕业于中科院地理所(导师为陆大道院士);2010 年从北京大学博士后出站;同年 6 月作为南京师范大学人文地理学学科特区第四层次优秀高层次人才引进到地科院,年底晋升副教授;2016 年初成为华东师范大学经由海内外公开招聘引进的教授。 叶超(1978-),男,甘肃武威人,40岁已成为教授博士生导师!跑题了,在他的个人博客(叶子厚



American Space, Chinese Place
                                                                   Yi-Fu Tuan
Americans have a sense of space, not of place. Go to an American home in exurbia,and almost the first thing you do is drift toward the picture window. How curious that the first compliment you pay your host inside his house is to say how lovely it is outside his house! He is pleased that you should admire his vistas. The distant horizon is not merely a line separating earth from sky, it is a symbol of the future. The American is not rooted in his place, however lovely; his eyes are drawn by the expanding space to a point on the horizon, which is his future.

      By contrast, consider the traditional Chinese home. Blank walls enclose it. Step behind the spirit wall and you are in a courtyard with perhaps a miniature garden around the corner. Once inside the private compound you are wrapped in an ambiance of calm beauty, an ordered world of buildings, pavement, rock, and decorative vegetation. But you have no distant view: nowhere does space open out before you. Raw nature in such a home is experienced only as weather, and the only open space is the sky above. The Chinese is rooted in his place. When he has to leave, it is not for the promised land on the terrestrial horizon, but for another world altogether along the vertical, religious axis of his imagination.

    The Chinese tie to place is deeply felt. Wanderlust is an alien sentiment. The Taoist classic Tao Te Ching captures the ideal of rootedness in place with these words: "Though there may be another country in the neighborhood so close that they are within sight of each other and the crowing of cocks and barking of dogs in one place can be heard in the other, yet there is no traffic between them; and
throughout their lives the two peoples have nothing to do with each other." In theory if not in practice, farmers have ranked high in Chinese society. The reason is not only that they are engaged in the "root" industry of producing food but that, unlike pecuniary merchants, they are tied to the land and do not abandon their country when it is in danger.

Nostalgia is a recurrent theme in Chinese poetry. An American reader of translated Chinese poems may well be taken aback, even put off, by the frequency, as well as the sentimentality of the lament for home. To understand the strength of this sentiment, we need to know that the Chinese desire for stability and rootedness in place is prompted by the constant threat of war, exile, and the natural disasters of flood and drought. Forcible removal makes the Chinese keenly aware of their loss. By contrast, Americans move, for the most part, voluntarily. Their nostalgia for hometown is really longing for childhood to which they cannot return: in the meantime the future beckons and the future is "out there," in open space. When we criticize American rootlessness we tend to forget that it is a result of ideals we admire, namely, social mobility and optimism about the future. When we admire Chinese rootedness, we forget that the word “place” means
both location in space and position in society: to be tied to place is also to be bound to one's station in life, with little hope of betterment. Space symbolizes hope, place, achievement and stability.
 
        美国人有空间意识,但没有场所概念。如果你去住在郊外的美国人家中做客,你要做的第一件事,几乎总是不由自主地走向观景窗。说来真是怪,你在主人屋内首先赞扬他屋外景色多么美!主人很高兴,你会欣赏他户外的远景。远方的地平线不仅仅是天地间的分界线,而且是未来的象征。美国人不会扎根于他的寓所,不管这寓所多么舒适;他目光被辽阔的空间引向地平线上的一点,那是他的未来。
      相对而言,中国人的传统住所是四面围墙、院子的角落里会有一个小花园。当你进入这种四合院式的建筑时,你就能体会到一种由排列整齐的屋舍、小道、假山、花草而形成的宁静之美的氛围。但你不可能再有更宽阔的视野了:你的眼前除了天空已经没有其
空间了。这就是中国人,他们已深深地扎根于这片土地上了。
      我们能够深深地体会到中国人对地域的情节,流浪的生活那只是外国人的情怀。道家巨著《道德经》里的几句话最能表达中国人的这种“根”的情节:邻国相望,鸡犬之声相闻,民之老死,不相往来。理论上中国农民的社会地位是很高的,但事实上恰恰相反。原因不仅仅是因为他们早已深深扎根于务农这一行业,他们不同于唯利是图的商人,他
已经被束缚在了土地上。除非国破家亡,他们是不会背井离乡的。
     乡愁是中国诗词经久不衰的一个话题,一位读过中国诗词的美国友人极有可能会因诗词中频繁出现的思乡之情而惊叹乃至反感。只有了解了中国人对一个稳定归属的那种强烈向往是由频繁的战争、流亡及自然灾害的威胁所形成的,我们才能真正理解这份感情的强烈。背井离乡使中国人深深地认识到了自己的损失究竟有多大。然而美国人却是相对自主地进行迁移,他们对故乡的思念就像是童年一样,那只是一种再难重温的回忆:未来在向他们招手,未来就在前方、就在脚下。我们常常对美国人的故乡情嗤之以鼻,但我们没有意识到这恰恰是源于我们对人家那种生活的向往,也就是灵活的社会生活和对未来的乐观。我们也常常为自己“根”的情节而自豪,同时我们也没有意识到“场所”这个词既有方位又有社会地位的意思,那就意味着很难改善你的生活。在美国人的眼里,空间孕育着无
的希望;而中国人的场所只能说明你曾经的成就,也就意味着墨守成规。
 
 
美国人的空间和中国人的地域
 
    美国人有很强的空间感,但地域感较弱。每当拜访美国城郊住户时,一进门你就会不由自主地走到窗前,欣赏窗外美景。明明在别人家里,却首先称赞屋外的景色,岂不怪哉!但屋主闻言往往心花怒放,因为你竟然懂得欣赏这房屋的远景设计。那遥远的地平线不再只是天地的分界线,更是未来的象征。美国人不会扎根在某地,不论那儿多么舒适:他们的目光越过广袤的天地,落在地平线上的一点,那儿是他们的未来。
    再来看看传统的中式房屋吧:清一色的围墙环绕四周,院子的角落里也许会有一个精巧别致的花圃。当你踏入这样一个私人院落时,立刻会被一种宁静和谐的气氛所笼罩,亭台、曲径、奇石和花草一一点缀其中,错落有致。然而,你却无法看到远处的风景:除了头顶的天空外,再没有任何开阔的空间。中国人一旦扎根,就会认定这片地域。
    中国人崇尚落地生根,不喜四海为家。道教经典《道德经》中曾这样描述理想中的安居乐业:邻国相望,鸡犬之声相闻,民至老死,不相往来。从理论上来说,中国农民的社会地位应该颇高。究其原因,不仅在于他们掌握国之根本——粮食生产,还在于他们和商人不同,总是坚守在自己的土地上,即时身陷险境,也绝不背弃家国。
    “乡愁”这一主题在中国诗歌创作中经久不衰。美国读者在阅读中国诗歌的英译文本时,往往会惊诧于这种频繁出现的思乡愁绪,甚至会产生反感。要想充分理解这种感伤,就必须知道,中国人之所以如此渴望安定,是由于他们饱受战乱、背井离乡和旱涝等自然灾害的威胁。无法抗拒的颠沛流离使他们对失去的事物更加敏感。与之相反,美国人搬家大多出于自愿。他们对家乡的眷恋,其实是怀念那一去不返的童年时光:未来正向他们招手,它就在眼前,在那广阔的天地。当我们批评美国人的“无根性”时,却忘了这是我们在追求理想——社会流动和乐观面对未来时产生的偏见;当我们推崇中国人的“扎根性”时,又忘了“地域”一词不仅指地理位置,还指社会地位——植根于某地就等于限制了生活状态,意味着没有改善生活的欲望。空间,象征希望;地域,代表成就和稳定。

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